Michael Pahlke

Expert for the behaviour of dogs, officially appointed and sworn by the District Council of the Oberpfalz

Specialty: professional judgment of dogs regarding aggressiveness and dangerousness opposite humans and animals.

For all dogs, which have to pass a test of character.


I furnish expertises to the following subjects:

Dog brawls, biting incidents against humans or animals. - concerns all breeds.

Obtaining of an owner permission for the keeping of a fighting dog (breed-verification, test of character, judgement of character). - Concerns attachment-1-dogs.

Obtaining of a negative certification (exemption from the authority approval). - concerns attachment-2- dogs.

The expertises are used:

for presentation at courts
for presentation at insurances
for presentation at municipalities, security authorities and veterinary offices, concerning the obtaining of an owner permission or a negative certification.

In case of questions about the Bavarian regulation concerning fighting dogs, lists of breeds and opinions, contact me, telephone counsuling is free of charge.


The test of character

The test of character varies from expert to expert. That's why I can describe only the approximate procedure of the test

If you take the test with another expert, you can certainly ask him for the exact procedure. The experts I know are all together friends of dogs and other animals. . It is not true that every examiner is pleased,  when a dog has failed the test, even though this sometimes is  suggested. The expert, however, always has to decide in a fair and neutral way.


The test consists of two parts and  is usually accomplished at the residence of the dog owner.

Part I: Inquiry

The dog owner is asked questions about the own dog (name; date of birth, owner data, breed, identification etc.). These are no specific cynological  questions, but questions about the conditions of keeping the dog (dwelling, garden, kennel etc.), the reasons why the dog has been bought (family dog, guard dog or protection dog etc.), former perturbances of safety (bitings, accidents, etc.). In addition it will be asked who walks the dog, whether there are other pets, in particular other dogs,  the dog's behavior against game animals and poultry.  Behavior towards adults and children, other dogs, traffic and other environmental influences.

Part II: Examination tour

During the examination tour the following situations are examined:

Behavior in the dwelling.

Does the dog admit visitors to enter? How is its behavior? Is it territorially aggressive? The dog needn't be pleased about visitors, in no case however  it is  allowed to drive visitors away by aggressive behavior.

Basic obedience

(sit, down and coming after been calling, with and without distraction, as well as heeling on leash). A perfect obedience is not necessary. I would like to see whether the owner can control his or her dog, leashed or unleashed.

Meeting running persons, in particular children, and anxious persons.

The dog needn't accept to be touched by everyone, but it is not permitted to react agressively, if the owner has forbidden to do so.

Behavior against a person, who approaches the dog owner.

The dog is not allowed to show any form of aggression.


 The dog has to deliver a thrown booty (ball) at least to its owner. If you are playing with your dog, pulling the booty, I would like to see whether the dog, when extremly motivated, gets completely wrapped up in this game and probably tends to displacement activities. The owner must be able to take away the dog's  booty at any time either by command or by physical action.

Behavior of the dog in a group of persons

Several persons stand close to each other in a smaller group. The dog owner has now to walk across the group with his or her dog. The persons do not touch the dog, but do not step aside either.

Reaction of the dog, when I offer treats or when I touch it. Is it possible to inspect its ears and teeth? How is its reaction while he is gazed at?

Isolation of the dog.

For this test the dog is leashed (as for example outside of a shop) and the owner moves outside the dog's range of vision.  After a few minutes  I approach the dog and speak to it.. In this situation I would like to see whether the dog tends to aggression caused by fear or the will to defend its territory.

Important things about the test of character:

1. On demand the dog will be examined only leashed. In this case however in the expertise the obligation of a leash will be recommended because the reactions without leash could not be examined. The obligation of a leash, however, can be lifted, if the owner later proves that he or she is able to control his or her unleashed dog to a sufficient degree, for example  after having visited a dog school.

2. Same-sex incompatibilities are to be regarded as normal behavior between dogs, if they do not get out of control. The dog owner must be able to control and to influence his or her dog psychologically and physically.

3. The dog owner is allowed to be near by the dog in each test situation and is allowed to influence it, (except for a short time during the isolation-test).

4. Of course the dog owner may videotape the whole examination, or have it videotaped by me. The owner also can bring along a second person, except the person who prepared the dog for the test.

5. Collars, not according to the rules of animal-protection, are not permitted (no electric collars or choke chains). Similarly, it is not allowed to calm the dog by the use of drugs.

6. If the dog, in some situations, does not react appropiately, the expert has the possibility to recommend individual measures to the authorities in charge. (he cannot impose anything). Possible measures are: obligation of leash or muzzle, obligation to visit a dog school, only specified persons are allowed to walk the dog etc. A castration cannot be recommended. In these cases the dog obtains, nevertheless, a negative certification, the owner however has to meet certain obligations.

In case of questions, don't hesitate to call me or to send me an E-Mail.